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分享ACT官方社会科学类阅读样题(附译文及解析)

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      我们都知道,ACT阅读考试文章类型,主要分为四种类型:小说、社会科学、人文科学、自然科学。其中社会科学类文章主要取材于人类学、考古学、传记、经济、教育、地理、历史、政治、心理学等。主要是以人或者社会群体作为研究对象。今天ACT考试网小编为大家介绍一下ACT官方公布的社会科学类类阅读样题,下面小编带大家一起来看看吧!


ACT官方公布的社会科学类类阅读样题


  This passage is adapted from the chapter “Personality Disorders” in Introduction to Psychology, edited by Rita L. Atkinson and Richard C. Atkinson (©1981 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.).(以下文章改编自Rita L. Atkinson和Richard C. Atkinson(©1981 Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Inc.)编辑的心理学导论“人格障碍”一章。)

  正文如下:

  How should the law treat a mentally disturbed person who commits a criminal offense? Should individuals whose mental faculties are impaired be held responsible for their actions? These questions are of concern to social scientists, to members of the legal profession, and to individuals who work with criminal offenders.

  法律如何对待精神紊乱犯罪的人?智力能力受损的人是否应对其行为负责?这些问题受到社会科学家,法律界人士以及与犯罪嫌疑人合作的个人的关心。

  Over the centuries, an important part of Western law has been the concept that a civilized society should not punish a person who is mentally incapable of controlling his or her conduct. In 1724, an English court maintained that a man was not responsible for an act if “he doth not know what he is doing, no more than . . . a wild beast.” Modern standards of legal responsibility, however, have been based on the McNaghten decision

  of 1843. McNaghten, a Scotsman, suffered the paranoid delusion that he was being persecuted by the English prime minister, Sir Robert Peel. In an attempt to kill Peel, he mistakenly shot Peel’s secretary. Everyone involved in the trial was convinced by McNaghten’s senseless ramblings that he was insane. He was judged not responsible by reason of insanity and sent to a mental hospital, where he remained until his death. But Queen Victoria was not pleased with the verdict—apparently she felt that political assassinations should not be taken lightly—and called on the House of Lords to review the decision. The decision was upheld and rules for the legal definition of insanity were put into writing. The McNaghten Rule states that a defendant may be found “not guilty by reason of insanity” only if he were so severely disturbed at the time of his act that

  he did not know what he was doing, or that if he did know what he was doing, he did not know it was wrong.

  几个世纪以来,西方法律的一个重要部分,就是一个文明社会不应该惩罚一个没有能力控制自己的行为的人的观念。1724年,一家英国法院认为,如果一个人不知道自己在做什么,就对自己的行为不负责。这无非是…一个野兽。然而,现代的法律责任标准是基于1843年的McNaghten的决定。苏格兰人麦克纳恩特(McNaghten)有一种偏执的错觉,认为自己正受到英国首相罗伯特·皮尔(Robert Peel)的迫害。为了杀死皮尔,他错误地射杀了皮尔的秘书。所有参与审判的人都相信了麦那拉克的愚蠢的胡扯,他疯了。他因精神错乱而被判定不需要负责任,并被送到了精神病院,直到他去世。但是,维多利亚女王对判决不满意,显然她觉得不应该轻率地采取政治暗杀,并呼吁上议院审查这一决定。这一决定得到了支持,精神错乱的法律定义也被写入了书面。“麦克纳根规则”规定,只要当被告人不知道自己在做什么,或者他知道自己在做什么而不知道是错的,这种行为可能被认定为精神失常,而不犯罪。

  The McNaghten Rule was adopted in the United States, and the distinction of knowing right from wrong remained the basis of most decisions of legal insanity for over a century. Some states added to their statutes the doctrine of “irresistible impulse,” which recognizes that some mentally ill individuals may respond correctly when asked if a particular act is morally right or wrong but still be unable to control their behavior.

  美国采用了麦克纳根规则,从错误中辨别是非的区别仍然是一个多世纪以来大多数法律精神错乱决策的基础。有些国家将“不可抗拒的冲动”这一原则添加到他们的法规中,认为一些精神患者在被问及某一特定行为是否在道德上是正确或错误的时候,他们仍然无法控制他们的行为。

  During the 1970s, a number of state and federal courts adopted a broader legal definition of insanity proposed by the American Law Institute, which states:“A person is not responsible for criminal conduct if at the time of such conduct, as a result of mental disease or defect, he lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate the wrongfulness of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law.” The word substantial suggests that “any” incapacity is not enough to avoid criminal responsibility but that “total” incapacity is not required either. The use of the word appreciate rather than know implies that intellectual awareness of right or wrong is not enough; individuals must have some understanding of the moral or legal consequences of their behavior before they can be held criminally responsible.

  在20世纪70年代,一些州和联邦法院通过了美国法律研究所提出的关于精神错乱的更广泛的法律定义, 法律定义是这样说的:“如果当某种犯罪行为发生时,这个人由于精神疾病或缺陷,不负责其犯罪行为,那么他就缺乏足够的能力来理解他的行为的错误,或者使他的行为符合法律的要求。”实质性这个词表明,“任何”无能为力都不足以避免刑事责任,但也不要求“全面”丧失工作能力。使用“欣赏”这个词而不是“知道”这一词意味着对正确或错误的知识认识是不够的。个人必须对其行为的道德或法律后果有一定的了解,然后追究其刑事责任。

  The problem of legal responsibility in the case of mentally disordered individuals is currently a topic of intense debate, and a number of legal and mental health professionals have recommended abolishing the insanity plea as a defense. The reasons for this recommendation are varied. Many experts believe that the current courtroom procedures—in which psychiatrists and psychologists for the prosecution and the defense present contradictory evidence as to the defendant’s mental state—are confusing to the jury and do little to help the cause of justice. Some also argue that the abuse of the insanity plea by clever lawyers has allowed too many criminals to escape conviction. Others claim that acquittal by reason of insanity often leads to a worse punishment (an indeterminate sentence )to an institution for the criminally insane that may confine a person for life) than being convicted and sent to prison (with the possibility of parole in a few years).

  对于精神错乱的个人来说,法律责任的问题目前是激烈辩论的话题,一些法律和精神卫生专业人士建议取消精神错乱的辩护,这种建议的理由是各不相同。许多专家认为,目前的法庭程序——在这方面,控方和辩方的精神科医生和心理学家对被告的精神状态提出了矛盾的证据——令陪审团感到困惑,对正义的原因起不到什么作用。一些人还辩称,聪明的律师滥用精神错乱的辩解让太多的罪犯逃脱了定罪。另一些人声称,因精神错乱而被无罪释放,往往会导致更恶劣的惩罚(一个不确定的判决),而不是被判有罪并被送进监狱(在数年内假释的可能)。

  Despite the current controversy, actual cases of acquittal by reason of insanity are quite rare. Jurors seem reluctant to believe that people are not morally responsible for their acts, and lawyers, knowing that an insanity plea is apt to fail, tend to use it only as a last resort. In California in 1980, only 259 defendants (out of approximately 52,000)were successful in pleading not guilty by reason of insanity.

  尽管目前存在争议,但因精神错乱而被无罪释放的案例相当罕见。陪审员似乎不愿意相信,人们在道义上对他们的行为不负责,而律师知道,精神错乱的抗辩容易失败,他们倾向于只把它当作最后的手段。在1980年的加州,只有259名被告(约52,000名)因精神错乱而没有认罪。

Questions:

  1)One of the author’s main points about the legal concept of responsibility in the passage is that:

  A. the phrase “not guilty by reason of insanity” has made our legal system more efficient.

  B. responsibility and guilt are legal concepts, and their meanings can be modified.

  C. knowing right from wrong is a simple matter of admitting the truth to oneself.

  D. people can become severely disturbed without a word of warning to anyone.

  解析:这道题的正确答案为B。从文章的内容看,我们知道作者首先介绍了麦克纳根规则,然后又讲述了在1970年代,许多州法院和联邦法院通过了一项更广泛的法律定义,修改了一个精神紊乱的人的法律责任。文章又进一步指出,“精神错乱的人的法律责任问题目前是一个激烈辩论的话题”这些都说明了一个精神紊乱的人的法律责任标准是如何随着时间的推移而修改的。

  2)Based on the passage, the primary purpose for the 1970s redefinition of insanity proposed by the American Law Institute was to:

  E. eliminate the insanity defense from American courtrooms.

  F. more precisely define the concepts of responsibility and intellectual capacity.

  G. redefine legal insanity so that it might include as many criminals as possible.

  H. apply the McNaghten Rule only to trials involving cases of mistaken identity.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是F。根据文章标注的红色的部分我们知道,“如果当某种犯罪行为发生时,这个人由于精神疾病或缺陷,不负责其犯罪行为,那么他就缺乏足够的能力来理解他的行为的错误,或者使他的行为符合法律的要求。” 也就是说20世纪70年代,美国法律学会将精神错乱重新定义。

  3)From information in the third and fourth paragraphs (lines 35–58) it can reasonably be inferred that the legal definition of insanity was changed in the 1970s after:

  A.federal courts won a dispute with state courts over a proposal made by the American Law Institute.

  B. the doctrine of “irresistible impulse” was found to contradict accepted notions of justice.

  C. proponents of the McNaghten Rule had been using the insanity defense in far too many murder trials.

  D. several courts found that justice was not always best served when the McNaghten Rule was applied.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是D。通过“Some states added to their statutes the doctrine of 'irresistible impulse”和“a number of state and federal courts adopted a broader legal definition of insanity”我们知道在某些情况下,司法不一定是最好的。

  4)According to the explanation provided in the fourth paragraph (lines 43–58), use of the word appreciate in the phrase “to appreciate the wrongfulness” (lines 48–49) instead of know implies which of the following?

  E. The difference between right and wrong is something people feel rather than know, which makes deciding legal responsibility difficult.

  F. The difference between right and wrong is something people feel rather than know, which makes deciding legal responsibility difficult.

  G. The word appreciate suggests that an action and that action’s implications must be understood for there to be legal responsibility.

  H. An insane person would “know” something the way a sane person would “know” something, and be able to appreciate that knowledge, too.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是G。从“The use of the word appreciate rather than know implies that intellectual awareness of right or wrong is not enough; individuals must have some understanding of the moral or legal consequences of their behavior before they can be held criminally responsible. ”我们知道他使用了“欣赏”这个词,就意味着,在人们被追究刑事责任之前,他们“必须对他们行为的道德或法律后果有一定的了解。”

  5)The passage indicates that the McNaghten case became the basis for future decisions about legal insanity because:

  A. he House of Lords upheld the verdict of the court despite considerable political pressure.

  B. here had been an increase in cases of murder involving mistaken identity arising from delusions.

  C. McNaghten was unable to convince the jury at his trial that he was incoherent and insane.

  D. McNaghten used a gun to commit murder, thus aggravating the crime in the jury’s mind.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是A。从“But Queen Victoria was not pleased with the verdict—apparently she felt that political assassinations should not be taken lightly—and called on the House of Lords to review the decision. The decision was upheld and rules for the legal definition of insanity were put into writing. ”我们知道不顾相当大的政治压力,上议院维持了法院的裁决。

  6)The passage states that McNaghten wanted to kill the English prime minister because the Scotsman thought that he:

  E. would establish a confusing legal precedent.

  F. had been rejected by Peel’s secretary.

  G. would be better off in a mental hospital.

  H. had been wronged by the minister.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是H。从“a Scotsman, suffered the paranoid delusion that he was being persecuted by the English prime minister.”我们知道苏格兰人麦克纳恩特有一种偏执的错觉,认为自己正受到英国首相罗伯特·皮尔(Robert的迫害,所以答案选H。

  7)According to the passage, one of the reasons some mental health and legal groups want to abolish the insanity defense is that:

  A. even clever lawyers are confused about when to use and when not to use it.

  B. juries that must sort out conflicting testimony become confused, and justice suffers.

  C. when it is invoked, even if the case is won, the punishment often ends up being too lenient.

  D. innocent defendants are too often being punished unfairly by unsympathetic juries.

  解析:这道题的正确答案选B。从“a number of legal and mental health professionals have recommended abolishing the insanity plea as a defense.”和“Many experts believe that the current courtroom procedures…are confusing to the jury.”我们知道一些心理健康和法律团体想要废除精神错乱防卫的原因是目前的法庭程序令陪审团感到困惑。

  8)The passage suggests that individuals who use the insanity defense:

  E. are not permitted to do so unless it can be proved beforehand that they are really insane.

  F. should be tried, convicted, and punished whether or not they are really insane.

  G. are legally responsible for their actions even if a jury decides they are not guilty.

  H. might risk a lifelong confinement even if acquitted by a jury, if the acquittal is based on insanity.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是H。从“acquittal by reason of insanity often leads to a worse punishment (an indeterminate sentence to an institution for the criminally insane)我们知道,即使因为精神错乱而无罪释放是基于的话,陪审团也可能冒着终身监禁的危险。”

  9)According to the passage, a lawyer contemplating using insanity as a defense for a client should do which of the following?

  A. Carefully evaluate using the defense, since in actual practice it rarely works.

  B. Assemble for trial a team of expert witnesses with a wide range of viewpoints on mental illness.

  C. Make sure that the doctrine of “irresistible impulse” is not used by the prosecution in his or her client’s trial.

  D. Recommend that the client be acquitted because he or she has been judged criminally insane by a doctor.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是A。从“lawyers, knowing that an insanity plea is apt to fail, tend to use it only as a last resort”我们了解到,律师们知道,精神错乱的申诉容易失败,他们倾向于把它当作最后的手段。所以一个律师如果想用精神错乱作为一个客户的辩护应该仔细考虑一下。

  10)One of the main points made in the last paragraph is that insanity pleas were:

  E. unconvincing to most juries in California in 1980.

  F. used in most cases in California in 1980.

  G. often successful in California in 1980.

  H. popular with lawyers in California in 1980.

  解析:这道题的正确答案是E。从“actual cases of acquittal by reason of insanity are quite rare” 和“In California in 1980, only 259 defendants (out of approximately 52,000)were successful in pleading not guilty by reason of insanity.”我们知道1980年在加州的大多数陪审团都没有说服力。

  社会科学类文章出题套路一般是固定的,往往有一个什么“现象”或者“问题”,然后通过一定的研究,提出一个什么样的“结论”、“解决方案”、“应用”或者“影响力”。你要做的就是确定文章的“支点”,把文章的脉络理清,这样做题的时候,只需看懂题干和选择项,快速地定位关键点就可以了。

  同时,科学题材的文章逻辑性都比较强,阐述的过程都非常之严谨。所以在浏览的过程中,也要注意文章中语义的起合转成。特别是像but, yet, however…这样表示转折的词。

  做题的时候还要把控时间哦!建议像社会科学和自然科学这样条理性比较强的文章,一篇文章用一篇文章用2-3分钟处理掉,然后迅速转到做题上来,做题时间控制在5分钟之内。对于小说和人文类文章,读文章的时间控制在5分钟之内,做题时间控制在4分钟以内。

    以上同学们都了解了吗?大家一定要做好备考ACT计划,备考ACT是一条很长的道路,希望同学们一定要坚持下去!小编祝愿小伙伴们早日到达梦想的学校!


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